Lifestyle MedicineAt its heart are a set of core competencies and the use of comprehensive lifestyle interventions to address underlying disease risks—thereby decreasing illness burden and improving clinical outcomes within value-based medicine. The influences of these groups has not yet extended across the whole country, but many scholars in many fields like nutrition, exercise, medicine, and psychology are becoming more interested and realize the necessity to gather their abilities to solve common medical problems in modern society.
One such study showed that the diabetes in the Pima Indians' was familial 19 The population contains individuals who suffer from most of the clinical characteristic of diabetes such as obesity, insulin resistance, dysfunction of insulin secretion, and increased rates of endogenous glucose production 20 As the diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes according to the World Health Organization were based on a Native American population 21 , the findings in Pima Indians indicate that major metabolic pathways related to the pathogenesis of diabetes are common to both Native and non-Native Americans.
In 2010, Lianov and Johnson 3 published an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association that strongly advocated physician education and training in purpose: Physician educators at both the undergraduate and graduate medical education levels should consider incorporating the relevant lifestyle medicine competencies into education and training programs.” The need for education in lifestyle medicine is so profound that prominent universities like Harvard, Stanford, and Yale have implemented the inclusion of lifestyle medicine into their curriculum, ranging from postgraduate courses to the development of separate institutes devoted to the cause.
Egger et al. concluded that Lifestyle medicine forms a bridge with public health and health promotion, where the latter is defined as ‘the combination of educational and environmental supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to health'” 10 (The contents in single quotation mark is taken from Greene and Kreuter's material 13 ).
Lifestyle Medicine is the science and application of 49 healthy lifestyles as interventions for the prevention and treatment of lifestyle-related diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, some neurological conditions and some cancers.
A specific lifestyle indicates the conscious or unconscious choice between one type of behaviour or another and can affect the basic biological mechanisms that lead to disease: changes in genetic expression, inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction.
Science has proven that healthy weight loss, healthy eating and fitness routines make dramatic improvements in health, and help control common chronic illnesses like high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, stress, and general lack of stamina.